Cereals and crops

Wheat

It is one of the first domesticated cereals, it was being cultivated at the very beginning of the Neolithic revolution, about 10,000 years ago. Wheat is widely used as a food, industrial and fodder crop. Flour, cereals, alcohol, oil are made from wheat grains. Their flour is used in baking bread, making pasta and confectionery. Cereals obtained from wheat: semolina, couscous, bulgur, freek. Wheat also goes to feed farm animals and is included in some recipes for the preparation of a number of alcoholic beverages, such as beer and vodka, as well as whiskey.

Barley

Barley belongs to the number of the oldest cultivated plants. The same way as wheat, it was cultivated during the Neolithic Revolution in the Middle East at least 10 thousand years ago. Barley grain is widely used for food, technical and feed purposes, including in the brewing industry, in the production of pearl barley and barley. Barley is one of the most valuable concentrated animal feeds, as it contains complete protein, rich in starch. In Russia, up to 70% of barley is used for feed purposes.

Rye

Rye is a typical cereal grain crop. Rye kvass is made from grain, flour is produced that goes mainly to bread, starch is obtained, and it is also used as raw material for the production of alcohol.

Rye is one of the most common (after mustard) and the most valuable green manure. It effectively suppresses weeds and plant diseases, surpassing other known green manures in this property due to its particularly rapid development. Rye has a strong structuring (loosening) effect on loamy soils, making them lighter and more permeable. In addition, it partially displaces various pests (especially nematodes), except for wireworm, which rye, on the contrary, attracts.

Oats

Oat grains are used for the production of oatmeal "Hercules", oat flour, other kinds of flour and special oat coffee.  The oatmeal porridge is made of the oat as well (its called "the oatmeal"). Oatmeal is used in the baking industry and confectionery industry. Oat grain is used as raw material for the production of animal feed and as a concentrated animal feed. Cut and ground cereals, oat flakes are made from oat grain.

It’s a valuable raw material for the pharmaceutical industry, also it works fine in  most sports nutrition products, and it’s widely used in folk medicine and homeopathy. The pharmaceutical industry produces alcohol tincture of oats, which is an effective sedative. It is used to obtain oat protein concentrate used in the production of sports nutrition, protein bars, vegetarian products and meat analogues, protein fortification of bakery products, snacks, drinks and milkshakes, instant foods.

Oats are one of the most important forage crops. Its grain contains: protein - on average 10.1%, starch - 36.1%, fat - 4.7%, ash - 3.2%, sugar - 2.35%, vitamins B1, B2. Whole oat grain is an indispensable feed for horses, cattle, especially young animals, and poultry. Oatmeal is well absorbed by the animal organism, so it is used for fattening young animals.

Oats are also used to make alcoholic beverages. They make oat beer out of it, which has a soft, pleasant taste, which is similar to fine barley varieties, and “kvass” (traditional Russian non-alcoholic drink). Oats are sometimes added in the preparation of vodka. From oats and oat malt put mash.

Spelt

It is a grain crop. Ripening, resistant to many fungal diseases, unpretentious. The ear is closed from dirt, does not lose the accumulated moisture, is protected from pests. It contains a lot of protein, few calories and most amino acids, which are irreplaceable. It contains other vitamins and various macro and micronutrients.
Many different dishes can be cooked from it: bread, porridge, soups, crackers, sauces and creams, side dishes for fish, meat, and desserts.

Buckwheat

These are cereal crops related to pseudo-grain, the seeds work fine as a human food and partly to animal feed. Seeds are readily eaten by songbirds. Buckwheat introduced into the culture more than 5 thousand years ago.

Buckwheat is the most important honey plant for many regions of Russia with light sandy loam soil. The feed base of beekeeping and honey production there largely depends on the state of buckwheat-growing. In favorable years, up to 80 kg of honey is obtained from 1 hectare of crops in areas with normal moisture (in arid regions, honey collection from buckwheat is extremely unstable). As a cross-pollinated, mainly entomophilous plant (pollinated by insects), buckwheat requires at least 2–2.5 bee families per hectare, which also provides up to 70% of seed production. Buckwheat flowers give a lot of nectar and greenish-yellow pollen. Abundant nectar production is observed during warm and humid weather in the first half of the day (in hot and dry weather, bees stop taking nectar bribes). Buckwheat honey is dark, brown with a reddish tinge, fragrant, spicy.

Buckwheat is a common food product. Several varieties of cereals are known: the kernel - whole grain, large and small seeds - chopped grains, Smolensk cereal - crushed kernels. Groats for sale, which underwent hydro and heat treatment (from black to light brown), are used to make buckwheat porridge, casseroles, puddings, meatballs, soups. Buckwheat grain is ground on flour, but due to the lack of gluten, it is unsuitable for baking bread without adding ordinary flour. It’s used for pancakes, cakes and dumplings. It’s widely used as a side dish in the countries of the former USSR (as a porridge) and rarely used in Western European countries. In recent years, a slight increase in the consumption of buckwheat products in the West is associated with its use for dietary purposes.

Unroasted cereals (green-grassy color), known as "green buckwheat", is considered a dietary and "healthy" product, and costs two or more times more than ordinary, processed buckwheat. It also makes cereals and other dishes. Buckwheat and it’s flour are stored for a long time period and are very suitable for storage in army warehouses, since the fats contained in them are resistant to oxidation.

Wite millet

Millet is one of the most ancient cultivated plants in Eurasia. Millet firstly began to be cultivated about 7000 years ago, and this is a valuable cereal crop. Grain (called millet) is used to make soups, cereals and other culinary products; is a valuable feed for poultry. The growing season is from 60 to 120 days. The plant is thermophilic and resistant to drought, as well as to salinization of the soil, but does not tolerate acidic soils. The yield of 14-17 centners per hectare. Straw and green mass are used as livestock feed. In Russia, it is cultivated mainly in the arid regions of the Volga and Central Black Earth regions. Virtually gluten free, therefore, it can be recommended for people suffering from celiac disease, a congenital disease caused by protein intolerance to some cereal crops. Millet stimulates blood formation. Millet porridge is indicated for hypertension and diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Red millet

Millet is one of the most ancient cultivated plants in Eurasia. Millet firstly began to be cultivated about 7000 years ago, and this is a valuable cereal crop. Grain (called millet) is used to make soups, cereals and other culinary products; is a valuable feed for poultry. The growing season is from 60 to 120 days. The plant is thermophilic and resistant to drought, as well as to salinization of the soil, but does not tolerate acidic soils. The yield of 14-17 centners per hectare. Straw and green mass are used as livestock feed. In Russia, it is cultivated mainly in the arid regions of the Volga and Central Black Earth regions. Virtually gluten free, therefore, it can be recommended for people suffering from celiac disease, a congenital disease caused by protein intolerance to some cereal crops. Millet stimulates blood formation. Millet porridge is indicated for hypertension and diseases of the cardiovascular system.

White sorghum

 Sorghum grain is processed into cereals, flour and starch, alcohol. The expediency of cultivating sorghum in the arid and semi-arid regions of the planet is due to its versatility and high productivity. Green mass and grain are readily eaten by many types of farm animals. Sorghum is not only a high-yielding culture, it is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, carotene, tannins, vitamins, which play an important role in increasing the productivity of animals. By nutritional properties, grain and green mass of sorghum are almost not inferior to corn, and in some regions they surpass it. In addition to fodder, sorghum grain is used for the alcohol and starch industry. Sugar sorghum and Sudanese grass have proven themselves in mixed crops with legumes, corn, and sunflower. A sugary-rich stalk makes it possible to obtain balanced silage and haylage, while crop productivity remains very high.

Red sorghum

 Sorghum grain is processed into cereals, flour and starch, alcohol. The expediency of cultivating sorghum in the arid and semi-arid regions of the planet is due to its versatility and high productivity. Green mass and grain are readily eaten by many types of farm animals. Sorghum is not only a high-yielding culture, it is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, carotene, tannins, vitamins, which play an important role in increasing the productivity of animals. By nutritional properties, grain and green mass of sorghum are almost not inferior to corn, and in some regions they surpass it. In addition to fodder, sorghum grain is used for the alcohol and starch industry. Sugar sorghum and Sudanese grass have proven themselves in mixed crops with legumes, corn, and sunflower. A sugary-rich stalk makes it possible to obtain balanced silage and haylage, while crop productivity remains very high.

Corn

Corn was introduced into the culture 7-12 thousand years ago in the territory of modern Mexico. The culinary possibilities and the variety of corn are great. Freshly harvested cobs are eatable, but are usually consumed in boiled form anyways. For long-term storage, they can be frozen. Canned corn grains are used for salads, first and second courses. Coarse corn flour is used to make cereals, and fine flour is used for puddings, dumplings, pancakes and other pastries. Corn flakes are made from pre-flavored and fragmented corn grains - a finished food product that does not require additional cooking. They are consumed as a side dish, as well as an independent dish.

Corn is grown for silage and harvested at the stage of milk-wax ripeness by forage harvesters with special reapers. Silage corn has a high yield.

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